How does it work and what does a photovoltaic system consist of?

ODDITY: The photovoltaic effect is the physical effect that solar panels use to produce energy when hit by sunlight, first observed by Alexandre Edmond Becquerel in 1839. It is a subcategory of the photoelectric effect, whose physical theory was published in 1905 by Albert Einstein and won him the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1921.

A solar cell or photovoltaic cell is an electrical/electronic device that converts the energy of incident sunlight into electricity through the photovoltaic effect; it is the building block of photovoltaic modules, also known as solar panels.

Solar panels produce direct current electricity, which must be converted into 220 Volt alternating current (DC/AC) in order to run household appliances; the second key element of a photovoltaic system is therefore the inverter. The inverters on the market today can be considered intelligent managers of the photovoltaic energy produced and consumed.
Some inverters are equipped with power optimisers, which can give a great advantage to both new and old systems; this is a small device that is installed on the back of a photovoltaic solar module, and has the function of making the individual panel communicate with the inverter and making it independent of the others, so that each one can perform at its best and not suffer the impact of the lower efficiency of the individual panel, which could be in the shade at that moment, for example. The application of optimisers then allows the PV modules to be arranged in different positions on the roof.

Another important element of a photovoltaic kit is the support structure, which must guarantee a high degree of safety against wind and the weight of snow. In this case too, as we are 100% involved in the design, we study ad hoc solutions to best meet all requirements.

An interesting addition to an FTV is the storage system, a set of accumulators or batteries that store the energy produced that is not immediately consumed; this mechanism allows excess energy to be stored and used in the evening/night, without having to request it from the grid. This mechanism allows the excess energy to be stored and used in the evening/night without having to request energy from the grid.
The photovoltaic system with storage is an important step towards energy independence.

How long does it take to install a photovoltaic system?

The rooftop installation of a small/medium sized residential system usually takes 1 to 2 days, without disturbing the family.

Does a photovoltaic system offer a realistic promise of zero energy bills?

Any installer promising to make you completely independent from the grid is promising something unrealistic or counterproductive. Solar energy is a renewable source, which is by definition intermittent and unpredictable, and it is unlikely that you will be able to reduce your electricity bills to zero unless you have a large system and large batteries that can guarantee sufficient electricity storage all year round. In this case, however, in a domestic context, the costs would be high, most likely higher than the savings you would achieve by completely
disconnecting from the grid. What we can evaluate are production estimates, even very reliable ones, and annual averages. The profit and loss account are always built on weighted values, the system will produce much more on some days and less on others. In other words, there will be days when production exceeds requirements (and this is where storage/batteries/storage systems and/or feeding into the grid come into play) and periods (e.g. at night) when it will be necessary to draw from storage or from the grid. For the excess energy produced during the day and in the summer months, the mechanism of the <> intervenes, for which the GSE issues a contribution and which will partly compensate the withdrawals from the grid.

A realistic target for energy efficiency is to cut energy bills by 30-70% by sizing the system correctly.

It is important to rely on an experienced installer who can advise you on the best technology available on the market, the ideal size based on your electricity consumption and carry out the installation tailored to your needs.