Who is most at risk if gas supplies from Russia are cut off?

In Italy, gas accounts for 40% (2020 figure) of the overall energy mix, the highest percentage at EU level, against a dependence on imports of 94% in 2021.

If it is not possible to replace the gas currently coming from Moscow (40% of total imports) by diversifying supply routes, the scenario is that of a possible shortage of up to 18% of total imports in 2022.

The dependence of gas imports in the European Union is indeed very high: 83% in 2021, representing 24% of the total energy mix.

There are countries, such as Sweden/Estonia/Finland, that are almost 100% dependent on gas imports, but for which this fossil fuel has a relatively limited weight in the national energy mix (3% in Sweden, 7-8% in Finland and Estonia).

In the Netherlands, the weight of gas is very strong: 38% of the mix, in second place in Europe, behind Italy, but Dutch dependence on foreign gas purchases is much lower than ours, 33% in 2021, thanks to domestic production and the growing use of storage.

As regards the Italian strategy to reduce supplies from Moscow, we recall in particular the recent Eni-Sonatrach agreement to increase Algerian gas imports by up to 9 billion cubic metres/year in 2023-2024 through the TransMed pipeline.